Glossary

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M

Any medicine prepared in a pharmacy in accordance with a medical prescription for an individual patient. In German: Magistrale Zubereitung /…
An arrangement between a manufacturer and payer/provider that enables access to (coverage/reimbursement of) a health technology subject to specified…
Natural or legal person with responsibility for the manufacturing of a product. Manufacturing includes all operations of receipt of materials,…
The percentage of the selling price that is profit. In the case of the pharmaceutical distribution, a wholesale or pharmacy margin is price-dependant…
Increase or decrease in costs as the result of one more or one less unit of output. Determining marginal cost is important in deciding whether or not…
The mark-up is the percentage of the purchasing price added on to get the selling price. A mark-up is added on to the total cost incurred by the…
Actors with a commercial interest in the pharmaceutical system. Market players include pharmaceutical manufacturers, distribution actors and…
A licence issued by a medicines agency approving a medicine for market use based on a determination by authorities that the medicine meets the…
The Marketing Authorisation Holder holds the authorisation to place a medicine on the market and is responsible for marketing it. The marketing…
Services provided by a health care system to a population. They include: - Hospital medical services aimed at curing, restoring and/or maintaining…
An upper threshold provided for by regulation or by tender specifications. Purchasers are not allowed to price above this threshold but have…
A medicine approved after a pioneering product. It is defined as comparable or similar but not clinically superior product. In German: Me-too-…
A medical device is any instrument, apparatus, appliance, software, material or other article, whether used alone or in combination, including the…
Any preventable event that may cause or lead to inappropriate medication use or patient harm while the medication is in the control of the health…
The process of comparing a patient’s medication orders to all of the medications that the patient has been taking. This reconciliation is done to…
Lack and/or gaps in the availability of medicines, usually due to problems in the supply chain. This supply issue affects how the pharmacy prepares…
Any substance or combination of substances which may be used in or administered to human beings either with a view to restoring, correcting or…
A multi-award procurement procedure means that a contract for purchasing goods and services is awarded to two or more suppliers. A multi-award…
Distribution system at wholesale level. Medicines of a manufacturer are distributed and supplied in parallel via different wholesalers. In German:…
A medicine that can be purchased under any of several trademarks from different manufacturers or distributors. When the patent of a medicine expires…