Voluntary health insurance (VHI)

Health insurance that is taken up and paid for at the discretion of individuals or employers on behalf of individuals. VHI can be offered by public or quasi-public bodies and by for-profit (commercial) and non-profit private organisations.
In the European context, VHI can be classified in three different ways:
Substitutive Private Health Insurance provides cover that would otherwise be available provided by state. In a social health insurance system people who have no insurance obligation (in some countries e.g. self-employed) may opt for substitutive private health Insurance.
Complementary VHI provides cover for services excluded or not fully covered by the state (e.g. dental care), including cover for co-payments
imposed by the statutory health care system.
Supplementary VHI provides cover for faster access and increased consumer choice.